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Michael Legacy

Michael is a past member of the AP Statistics Development Committee (2001-2005) and a current Table Leader for the Operational Exam.  He for many years was a Table Leader for the Alternate and Overseas Exams.  He has been a lead teacher at many AP Summer Institutes over the past twenty-one years and is a frequent presenter at College Board conferences.  Last year, he lead three online APSIs. Michael was the statistics content editor for the series, Laying the Foundation: Connecting to AP Mathematics funded by the O’Donnell Foundation.  He was also the author of the 2007 College Board AP Statistics Teacher’s Guide available on the College board website.  He has also authored the AP-style multiple-choice and free-response cumulative review sections for The Practice of Statistics for AP* 4e, 5e, and 6e editions as well as the Prep for the AP Exam Guide 4e.  Michael also authored the practice exams for the Strive for a 5 Guide (Molesky/Legacy) to accompany TPS 5e and TPS 6e and was a reviewer of Josh Tabor’s Annotated Teacher’s Edition for TPS 5e.

In February 2010, Michael was honored by the Siemens Corporation as the Texas AP Math/Science Teacher of the year.  He served as an AP statistics consultant to Pasadena ISD (TX) for 2010-12 under the auspices of the National Math + Science Initiative and then filled the same role for Carrollton-Farmers Branch ISD (TX) and Birdville ISD (TX).  Michael recently retired after 47 years of teaching and for the past twenty of those years taught AP Statistics and Honors Precalculus at Greenhill School in Addison, Texas.

Course Description

While this course is designed primarily for new teachers in AP Statistics, experienced teachers will find many useful things to take back to their classrooms.   Much of the week will be devoted to experimental design, correlation and regression, probability models, and inference.  We will discuss how to organize the course and how to use technology, simulation and data-gathering activities.  Time will be spent working with activities and simulations as a building block for the course.  Links to websites and handouts will be available through Canvas or DropBox and online sessions will be held via Zoom.  There will be synchronous and asynchronous sessions throughout the week.  This will be a 5-day workshop (tentatively 8:30 – 11:30 and 1:00-4:00)

With the recent rollout of an abundance of resources from College Board, time will be devoted to the new Course and Exam Description Binder (CED) and AP Classroom, the source for Personal Progress Checks and the AP Question Bank.

In addition to the binder for the week, participants will be able to download folders from Drop Box, which will be loaded with lessons, worksheets/handouts, class note sheets, AP practice sets, projects, and activities. Participants will learn about the AP Exam grading process by working through selected questions, rubrics, and the grading of student responses.  Participants are asked to have a graphing calculator with statistical capabilities as well as a laptop and their current textbook available if they have one.

What Participants Should Bring

  • Graphing calculator, with statistical capabilities, if possible. TI-84 recommended
  • Laptop, recommended
  • Current textbook, if you have one

NOTE: Quite a few calculator programs useful for demonstrating concepts will be shared. The programs are all loaded on a TI-83 silver Edition, so participants should bring a machine (at least a TI-84) that would be compatible for sharing these programs.


Five Day Course- July 12-16, 2021

Day 1-  Monday, July 12, 2021

 Morning (8:30 – 11:30)

  • Introducing ourselves
  • What topics are you specifically interested in covering?
  • Navigating the resources for this week
  • Textbook and teaching resources
  • AP Audit, Pacing/Syllabi
  • Review of the CED – got a handle on it?
  • Opening Day – Distracted Driving 

Afternoon (1:00 – 4:00)

  • Equity and Access as a Guiding Principle in Designing Instruction
  • Class activities on exploring data
  • Exploring Lock5/Stat Key (free website)
  • Some of my favorite Form B problems – how can these be used?
  • Exploring Relationships (Bivariate Data)
  • Class Activities on Exploring Data and Relationships 
Day 2-  Tuesday, July 13, 2021

Morning (8:30 – 11:30)

  • How do you handle homework in your class?
  • How do you handle review for the exam?
  • AP Classroom
  • How did you use it the first year?
  • How might you do things differently in 2020-2021?
  • Navigating the Participant Binder
  • Sampling design
  • Experimental Design
  • Plow Problem (2006 Form B Q5)

Afternoon (1:00 – 4:00)

  • Randomness and Probability Rules
  • Conditional Probability
  • Asking Sensitive Questions
  • Mutually Exclusive Events and Independent Events
  • How to teach combinations of Random Variables (Discrete and Continuous)
  • Binomial and Geometric Distributions
    • Poisson Distribution
  • Weight of a Gift Box
Day 3-  Wednesday, July 14, 2021

Morning (8:30 – 11:30)

  • Exploring MINITAB 19 (downloadable…see link on Canvas)
  • ANOVA (pushing beyond the AP course)
  • AP 2005 Q6
  • Introduction of Multiple Regression (pushing beyond the AP course)
  • How can you explain coefficient of determination and standard deviation of the residuals? (AP 2014 Q6)

Afternoon (1:00 – 4:00)

  • Deep Dive into Investigative tasks
  • Ask Good Questions Blog
  • Sampling Distributions of Means and Proportions
    • Websites and Activities
  • Time to explore websites
Day 4-  Thursday, July 15, 2021

Morning (8:30 – 11:30)

  • The Structure of Confidence Intervals and Significance Tests
  • What is the 10% condition and why do we need it?
  • 2-Sample Significance Tests and 2-Sample Confidence Intervals
  • How do you help students discern matched-pair test versus two independent sample test?
  • Randomization tests and estimating p-values (Rossman Chance website)

Afternoon (1:00 – 4:00)

  • Power, Type I and Type II Errors
  • Calculating power in general (AP 2018 Q6)
  • Favorite participants websites and activities (sharing)
  • Planning projects – participants (Best Practices)
Day 5-  Friday, July 16, 2021

Morning (8:30 – 11:30)

  • Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test
  • Chi-Square Test for Association/Independence
  • Chi-Square Test for Homogeneity
  • Class Activities on Chi-Square Procedures

Afternoon (1:00 – 4:00)

  • AP Reading
  • Assessment Strategies
  • Review Tips
  • Equity and Access (Revisited)
  • Wrap-up